Can you help me with...?
A: I'm sorry but I barely have time enough for my own experiments. I'm
not being rude when your email and phone calls go unanswered. I just don't have
the time. The best I can do is take your most common questions and try to answer
them here. I have exhausted great energy to be as thorough as I can with my information.
If I missed something or you find an error, please tell me and I will try to find
time to add or correct it.
Can I buy ... from you?
A: Only my PWMS and EBN 6" cells are available through this site,
FOR NOW. My PWM is so unique that I am planning on having etched, drilled and
silk screened PC boards mass produced for resale as the board only, complete kit
and finished units. For other HHO related goodies please check out http://www.hhoconnection.com/
Where can I get ... ?
A: Please Google it.
What are the dimensions of...?
A: My plates are 2" x 6.5" x 0.048", gap 0.049", stainless
steel grade 316L, connected +nnnnn-nnnnn+nnnnn-nnnnn+
I chose these dimensions because they fit neatly into a tube and create a chimney
stack effect for convection cooling. This is not etched on stone! Be creative.
Why do you use neutral plates?
A: Neutral plates form a series resistive network that divides
the available input voltage across the plates for the optimum voltage/plate
gap of 2.1-2.4V. If automotive charging systems were 2.3V I would
not use neutral plates at all. If they were 4.6V I would use one
neutral plate, etc. etc. More than 2.4V per plate gap wastes energy
in the form of heat.
at 12v / 6 = 2v per plate. Works but still requires very strong electrolyte. At
13.8v / 6 = 2.3v. So, you can see that 5n is IDEAL for a car with the charging
is 12v / 5 = 2.4v per plate. This configuration is ideal for running on a 12v
battery without a charging system. At 13.8v / 5 = 2.76v per plate. This is too
few plates for a car with the charging system running. It will likely run too
hot and inefficiently.
How did you create the tabs?
A: The five electrode plates start life 2" x 7.5". I cut a 1"h
x 1.5w" piece from the top to form a 1" tab that's .5" wide. To
the ends of those tabs I have .5" wide strips spot welded by the same sheet
metal shop that stamped the pieces for me. They could start life taller and remove
more material to create tabs without any spot welding. My decision to spot weld
was dictated solely by the size of the pieces I received from a friend.
What is your electrolyte?
A: KOH (Potassium Hydroxide). Other possible choices are NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide)
and NaHCO3 (Baking Soda).
Should I sand my plates?
A: It has been my experience that sanding is a complete waste of time.
How do you control temperature? Why does mine overheat?
A: Excess heat is created when you get more than 2.2V between any two plates
in solution. You're probably using parallel plates or too few neutral plates with
12-14v DC going in. Also, rapid electrolyte circulation helps to dissipate any
heat that does build up.
Why do you close in the edges?
A: Edges are sealed to prevent electrical leakage and raise efficiency.
At any voltage above 2V there is an avalanche breakdown effect in water where
current increases exponentially. Current takes the path of least resistance. It
will prefer to jump past a plate to the next adjacent plates rather than pass
through the intervening plates, unless you seal the edges to prevent it.
What adhesive to you prefer?
A: For quick assembly of experimental test fixtures, 3M White
1 hour fast cure urathane Marine adhesive available at most hardware,
marine and Home Depot stores. It's easy to work with, sets quickly
and doesn't create too much foam in the electrolyte. The reason
for marine adhesive is because it is designed to hold up well in
extremely caustic environments. I have tried other marine adhesives
such as Goop Marine which is clear. It's also is easy to work with
but I have found that it still poisons the electrolyte causing large
amounts of foam buildup.
permanent assembly of acrylic I use Weld-On 3 which is extremely
fast cure but not legal in some states. In those cases use the somewhat
slower curing Weld-On 4.
are special adhesives for clear PVC pipes and fittings but I haven't
tried them yet. Clear PVC is expensive! The only place I have found
so far to buy Schedule 40 clear PVC is from clearpvcpipe.com.
Why not just use Silicone glue or epoxy?
A: Because silicone, like most epoxy resins, will break down
in caustic electrolytes and poison the cell.
Why does my electrolyte turn brown?
A: Because you're probably using lesser grade stainless steel like 304
which leaches ferrous oxide from the metal, not to mention large amounts of Cr(VI).
316L is much less prone to this, albeit considerably more expensive.
Why don't you use tubes like Meyers did?
A: Tubes offer the advantage of no vertical edges to seal to prevent current
leakage. They may or may not be better suited to pulse resonant designs, if such
designs truly enhance HHO production. I personally have not seen it. A disadvantage
is they are best suited to two electrode designs.
brute force designs, nesting enough concentric tubes to provide the optimum voltage
drop per fluid gap creates a huge imbalance in surface area between the innermost
and outermost electrodes. Production is limited by the smallest tube in the cell.
It's also mechanically impossible to tweak the gap spacing without rebuilding
with an entirely different set of tubes.
Can I pressurize HHO?
A: Only if you have a death wish. A stoichiometric explosive gas mixture
at atmospheric pressure is extremely dangerous. Stored under pressure is a disaster
waiting to happen. The only way to store hydrogen safely is without the oxygen.
The only way to use HHO safely is on demand. To my knowledge, there is no easy
way to create the gases separately and efficiently at the same time. You either
create and collect them separately and inefficiently for later storage, or you
create them together and efficiently for on demand point of use.
What should I do with waste electrolyte?
A: Stainless steel leaches hexavalent chromium into the solution. VERY
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL! If you've never seen it, watch the movie Erin Brockavich.
NEVER dump it down the drain, onto the ground, into a stream or the ocean. The
dangers are absorption through the skin from regular skin contact or ingestion
through ground water contamination. Precautions one should take are to:
Handle carefully wearing latex gloves.
2) Collect waste electrolyte in empty plastic milk containers.
3) Label the containers with the contents - Cr+6 or Cr(VI) and your electrolyte,
KOH, NaOH, NaHCO3.
4) Dispose of through hazmat collection points.
5) If grinding stainless, wear a respirator.
towns and municipalities regularly sponsor free hazmat collection drives. Check
with your local town to see if they offer this service.
said, only the first batch of waste electrolyte is very toxic. The Cr+6 leaches
from the surface once. As long as the cell is not being over driven and metal
is not being eaten away, subsequent batches should be safe. That's why it's a
good idea to precondition plates in a bath of weak electrolyte for a while first,
alternating charge about once an hour for about a week, before putting them into
full service. Even 316L.
Why should I use a PWM?
A: A PWM is an electronic switch that turns on and off at a very fast rate
of speed. To the load it appears smooth because it's so fast, just like our vision
can barely detect the flicker of a fluorescent bulb even though it goes completely
off and back on again 120 times a second. The duty cycle of a PWM is the percentage
of on time vs. off time.
draw more current as they warm up. All cells will warm up, even the most efficient
cells I create. At the end of a day it can be easily three times the current that
you started with at the beginning of the day. Without a PWM the problem becomes
finding the correct electrolyte concentration for an entire day of driving. If
you start out weak then production is very slow to start out with and you lose
the benefits until much later in the day. If you start out strong enough to see
benefits right away, by the end of the day you're blowing fuses or greatly stressing
a current limited PWM you set your electrolyte for the target operating current
at the beginning of the day. To start the output duty cycle is nearly 100%. Half
way through the day as the cell is getting warm it may want to draw twice as much
current from straight DC. The PWM, sensing that twice as much current is flowing
every time it switches on, rolls back the duty cycle to 50%, thus maintaining
the same average current. At the end of day when the cell wants to draw three
times as much current the PWM is operating at 33% duty cycle.
is no other PWM design I have found that incorporates this feature, at least not
at a price that anyone can afford.
are some small changes for 24-28V.
Will your PWQM work at 24-28V?
A: Yes, with some mods.
The stiffening cap C7 must be rated for 36V or greater while still retaining the
other critical characteristic of very low ESR (<0.040 ohm). This makes it physically
larger and does not fit in the standard case but must be connected outside the
case. Or you can get a larger case.
The fan power must be moved to the regulated side of the voltage regulator. Otherwise
you'll burn out the fan. Or you can find a 24V fan instead of 12V.
Because of the higher voltage and fan load, the voltage regulator must be bolted
to the case to dissipate the additional heat.
than these changes, the rest of the circuit can remain the same.
How do I adjust the PWM without an oscilloscope?
A: I get a lot of email asking how to adjust this thing without an oscilloscope.
To be honest, the only reason I use a scope is to adjust the frequency to precisely
2.5KHz and observe visually when the PWM starts to limit. The frequency range
is 1KHz-10KHz. The frequency of the PWM is far less important than most people
think. More is not better. In fact, I'm considering changing the range to 500Hz-5KHz
by changing the value of C1 from 0.022uF to 0.047uF. Usually the VR pots ship
adjusted to the mid point. By default your PWM should operate around 2KHz (1KHz
if you change C1 as described earlier). There really should be no reason to change
it unless there are some resonant acoustic properties of your cell that you'd
like to experiment with. In that case you can just adjust the frequency pot VR2
set your PWM to limit current you will need some way of measuring the large current
being drawn by your load. You can buy ammeters that have external shunts for this
purpose for around $30, just the shunt alone if you have a digital multi-meter
for about the same price, you can build your own shunt as I've shown in video
#43 for mere pennies, or you can get a clamp on DC ammeter as I did for
around $80 from Harbor Freight.
adjust the electrolyte concentration of your cell to draw the amount of current
you want it to draw at its coldest operating temperature from straight DC (without
the PWM). Measure carefully as you do this so you will know what the concentration
is the next time you have to flush the cell and refill. Otherwise all you should
have to do is add distilled water to keep topping off your cell.
are 20 turn. Start adjusting the PWM by turning the Current Limit pot VR3 and
% pot VR1 fully CW. Just keep turning until you start to hear them click or until
you're certain you've turned them at least 20 turns. They won't break if you try
to go beyond maximum rotation.
your PWM to the cell, apply power and monitor the current. As the cell warms up
it will start to draw more current.
the current exceeds where you want the cell to operate, rotate the Current Limit
pot VR3 CCW until it settles to the operating current you want. As the PWM starts
to limit current you will hear it start to whistle.
As the cell heats up, peak current will rise but duty cycle will fold back an
equal amount to keep the RMS current constant. You should also view my video
#119 prior to operation.
Aren't you violating Conservation of Energy?
the simple math I use to stuff it in the face of "the experts" when
they say we're attempting to violate the "Laws" of conservation of energy.
Please feel free to use it to stuff it to them too.
The best I.C.E. is 18% efficient, 20% on a good day.
2) The process of brute force electrolysys today has been pushed to about 85%
Based on the energy available from burning Hydrogen, by using Faraday's "Law"
to translate from electrical energy it is estimated that 100% efficient hydrogen
electrolysis is achieved by creating somewhere between 5.5-7.5 milliliters of
gas per minute per watt of energy consumed. Members of our research group have
run the numbers several ways which all seem to point to around 7.0 m/m/w or mmw
for short. Many of our cells have operated as high as 6mmw or roughly 85% efficient
The product of electrolysis is HHO which has it's own energy value, up to 85%
of what we put in.
all we considered was the return of energy value when we inject the HHO as a supplement
to gasoline, then yes; Conservation of energy applies.
believe HHO as an additive does more than return 85% of the energy we put in to
create it. We believe its properties enhance the slow burning gasoline, speeding
up the rate of combustion, causing much more of the total combustion process to
be translated into mechanical energy rather than being lost as waste heat out
the tail pipe, raising the efficiency of the total system. Returning to the simple
say we're able to translate just 10% more of the total system energy to mechanical
energy. Seems like a reasonable goal. We have still not violated conservation
of energy, only raised the total system efficiency from 18% to 28%. But that's
an increase of 55%!!! Now deduct the energy loss of 15% to create the HHO that
made this possible and you still end up with a total net gain of 40%!
is not rocket science. It's simple math. I intend to validate the hypothesis and
help others with their own experiments by releasing my designs into the public
domain and selling accessories such as the PWM for those who do not possess the
technical skills to build them.